Artificial Intelligence tools, Higher Education, Impact, Perception, Writing Class


One of the benefits of artificial intelligence in the field of education is that it aids in writing. The aims of this research are to explore University students’ preferences in using AI for writing and investigate lecturers' perceptions regarding the use of artificial intelligence tools in EFL writing class. Qualitative research methods with case study design employed in this study. The data was collected by using questionnaires and interview. Ten EFL students and three lecturers from three different universities in Indonesia were involved as the respondents of this research. The findings revealed that there are nine types of AI ​​tools used by students in writing classes such as Quillbot, Grammerly, Chat GPT, Humata AI, Resume AI, Jenni AI, Perplexity, Deepl, and AI writing. Apart from that, the data also revealed the views of the lecturers on the use of AI. The data showed that AI writing tool have the influences on students' writing that the use of AI has received positive responses. Therefore, it can be inferred that Artificial Intelligence tools can be used in writing classes as long as it does not violate code in writing and not dependency.  


Aljanabi, M. (2023). ChatGPT: Future directions and open possibilities. Mesopotamian journal of Cybersecurity, 2023, 16-17.

Arianti, R. (2020). Pelatihan Menulis Kreatif Puisi Pada Siswa Kelas Tinggi SD Negeri 006 Rambah Kabupaten Rokan Hulu. Jurnal Masyarakat Negeri Rokania, 1(1), 1– 5.

Bernardco, H.R. (2002). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative methods. 3rd edition. AltaMira Press.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Bullock, J., & Luengo-Oroz, M. (2019). Automated Speech Generation from UN General Assembly Statements: Mapping Risks in AI Generated Texts. 1–5.

Chang, T. S., Li, Y., Huang, H. W., & Whitfield, B. (2021, March). Exploring EFL students' writing performance and their acceptance of AI-based automated writing feedback. In Proceedings of the 2021 2nd International Conference on Education Development and Studies (pp. 31-35).

Chiu, T. K. F. (2023). The impact of Generative AI (GenAI) on practices, policies and research direction in education: a case of ChatGPT and Midjourney. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–17.

Cotton, D. R. E., Cotton, P. A., & Shipway, J. R. (2023, March 13). Chatting and cheating: Ensuring academic integrity in the era of ChatGPT. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 61(2), 228–239.

Defazio, J., Jones, J., Tennant, F., & Hook, S. A. (2010). Academic literacy: The importance and impact of writing across the curriculum—A case study. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(2), 34–47.

Dehouche, N. (2021). Plagiarism in the age of massive Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPT-3). Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 21, 17–23.

Gašević, D., Siemens, G., & Sadiq, S. (2023). Empowering learners for the age of artificial intelligence. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 4(February).

Gayed, J. M., Carlon, M. K. J., Oriola, A. M., & Cross, J. S. (2022). Exploring an AI-based writing assistant’s impact on English language learners. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100055. https://

Haque, M. U., Dharmadasa, I., Sworna, Z. T., Rajapakse, R. N., & Ahmad, H. (2022). “I think this is the most disruptive technology”: Exploring sentiments of ChatGPT early adopters using Twitter data. arXiv.

Hu, G. (2023). Challenges for enforcing editorial policies on AI-generated papers. Accountability in Research, 1–4.

Jeanjaroonsri, R. (2023). Thai EFL learners’ use and perceptions of mobile technologies for writing. Learn Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 16(1), 169–193.

Kendall, L. (2014). The conduct of qualitative interviews: Research questions, methodological issues, and researching online. In Handbook of research on new literacies (pp. 133-150). Routledge.

Köbis, N., & Mossink, L. D. (2021). Artificial intelligence versus Maya Angelou: Experimental evidence that people cannot differentiate AI-generated from human-written poetry. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106553.

Kurniati, E. Y., & Fithriani, R. (2022). Post-Graduate Students’ Perceptions of Quillbot Utilization in English Academic Writing Class. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 7(3), 437.

Lancaster, T. (2023, June 5). Artificial intelligence, text generation tools and ChatGPT – does digital watermarking offer a solution? International Journal for Educational Integrity, 19(1).

Lewis, J. L., & Sheppard, S. R. (2006). Culture and communication: can landscape visualization improve forest management consultation with indigenous communities?. Landscape and urban planning, 77(3), 291-313.

Marzuki, Widiati, U., Rusdin, D., Darwin, & Indrawati, I. (2023). The impact of AI writing tools on the content and organization of students’ writing: EFL teachers’ perspective. Cogent Education, 10(2).

Mhlanga, D. (2023). Open AI in education, the responsible and ethical use of ChatGPT towards lifelong learning. In FinTech and Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable Development: The Role of Smart Technologies in Achieving Development Goals (pp. 387-409). Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland.

Mijwil, M. M., Hiran, K. K., Doshi, R., Dadhich, M., Al-Mistarehi, A.-H., & Bala, I. (2023). ChatGPT and the future of academic integrity in the artificial intelligence era: A new frontier. AlSalam Journal for Engineering and Technology, 2(2), 116-127.

Mokmin, N. A. M. (2020). The effectiveness of a personalized virtual fitness trainer in teaching physical education by applying the artificial intelligent algorithm. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 8(5), 258–264.

Ouyang, F., Zheng, L., & Jiao, P. (2022). Artificial intelligence in online higher education: A systematic review of empirical research from 2011 to 2020. Education and Information Technologies, 27(6), 7893–7925.

Parker, S. (2014). The impact of AI on jobs in scientific figure-making. Journal of Science Writing, 23(1), 31-35.

Pokrivcakova, S. (2019). Preparing teachers for the application of AI-powered technologies in foreign language education. Journal of Language and Cultural Education, 7(3), 135–153.

Rusinovci, X. (2015). Teaching writing through process-genre based approach. US-China Education Review, 5(10), 699–705.

Talan, T., & Kalinkara, Y. (2023). The role of artificial intelligence in higher education: ChatGPT assessment for anatomy course. Uluslararası Yönetim Bilişim Sistemleri ve Bilgisayar Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(1), 33-40.

Uddin, S. J., Albert, A., Ovid, A., & Alsharef, A. (2023). Leveraging ChatGPT to aid construction hazard recognition and support safety education and training. Sustainability, 15(9), 7121.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.). Sage Publications.

Zhang, C., Zhang, C., Li, C., Qiao, Y., Zheng, S., Dam, S. K., Zhang, M., Kim, J. U., Kim, S. T., Choi, J., Park, G.-M., Bae, S.-H., Lee, L.-H., Hui, P., Kweon, I. S., & Hong, C. S. (2023). One Small Step for Generative AI, One Giant Leap for AGI: A Complete Survey on ChatGPT in AIGC Era. 1(1), 1–29.

Zhao, X. (2022). Leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) technology for English writing: Introducing wordtune as a digital writing assistant for EFL writers. RELC Journal, 00336882221094089. 1177/00336882221094089